Lion Forest of the garden and the Lion Forest in Suzhou
Wen / Li Yang
[Abstract] in the medium rare periods of the Qing Dynasty, Chinese classical gardens appeared in the medium rare periods of the Qing Dynasty, among which emperor Qian Long made two imitation of the Lion Forest in Suzhou, the Lion Forest in the Changchun garden and the lion forest of the Mountain Resort in the Chengde. This imitation construction activity not only talked about the Jiangnan gardening skills to the north, but also expanded the influence of Suzhou gardens in the north. How many lion lions forests have been imitated in the lion forest of the Mountain Resort in Chengde's Mountain Resort? In what way have there been innovations and breakthroughs? Friends who have visited these gardens. There are some questions. In this phase of the lion forest, the editor has compiled an important view on the comparative research results of the lion forest of the garden and the Lion Forest in Suzhou, and the main links of the two gardens are presented to the readers.
Since the Qing Dynasty, Kangxi's idea of landscape architecture in the south of the Yangtze River has been widely introduced into the gardening practice of royal gardens. Emperor Qian Long, the six southern tour, praised the gardens in the south of the Yangtze River, and ordered the painter to copy it as a powder book. In this context, there are a number of cases in the royal garden that mimic the gardens in the south of the Yangtze River, the most famous of which are the Huishan garden built in Wuxi, the garden built in the Old Summer Palace, the garden built by the Chen's garden in Haining, and the Ru garden in the garden of Jiangning in Changchun. The Suzhou lion forest, known as the rockery, was imitated in the Changchun garden and was replicable in the Mountain Resort in Chengde. This kind of famous garden was repeatedly imitated in the history of Chinese classical garden.
The Lion Garden is the garden central garden of Mountain Resort. It was built in the thirty-nine years of Qianlong (1774). The Lion Forest in Suzhou was built in the Yuan Dynasty. It was a famous historical garden famous for the rockery. It was developed to the twenty-seven years of Qianlong (1762) for the garden of Huang's. The imitation of the Lion Forest in the garden, not only imitates the layout and the elements of the garden of the mother of Suzhou, but also draws on the layout and experience of the Lion Forest in the Changchun garden, and makes up for the deficiency in the garden of the lion forest of the Changchun garden, and combines its own characteristics, and has many innovations in the construction, and has its own originality in the garden art.
There are similar landscaping elements, themes, and artistic conception similar to the prototype. No matter what kind of similarity, the final purpose is to bring the visitors to the familiar landscape through these objective methods. This is the creation of Chinese classical gardens to highlight people's subjective feelings, and is different from the emphasis of Western gardens on the similarity of objective things.
First, the imitation of the literary mind, the pursuit of spiritual realm.
Emperor Qian Long had a few times facing the lion forest, after which he was built two times in Beijing, and the love of the lion forest was added. This particularity could not be simply attributed to the exquisite garden art of the lion's forest, and the lion forest map, which brought him the first feeling of the lion's forest.
The emperor of Qian Long described himself as a "ten complete old man". This kind of self view made him think that the emperor should be the leader of the political, military and economic leaders of a country as well as the spiritual leader of the people of the world. He accepted the education of Han culture in a small way. He had a lot of understanding and love for the literati, especially Ni Zan, who was the leader of the country. As a king of the country, Qian Long was the representative of the literati and even the meaning of Ni Zan. The name of the Qing Pavilion in the lion's forest in the garden is the study of Ni Zan's residence, and the other Yunlin stone room is also known as Ni Zan's name, which embodies the love of the Emperor Qianlong to Ni Zan and his literati behind.
The real carrier of Ni Zan's literati feelings and natural landscapes endowed with lion forest is the spiritual carrier of Suzhou lion forest. At the beginning of the imitation garden construction, the emphasis was placed on the pursuit of the picture of the lion forest map. Therefore, from the garden of the Lion Forest in the garden, the imitation of the Lion Forest in Suzhou is the most fundamental to the pursuit of the literati and the mountains in the garden, in order to restore the subjective feelings and spiritual pursuit of the emperor. The imitation of the Lion Garden in other fields is also based on the artistic conception of the lion forest map and the pursuit of individual spiritual realm.
Two. Imitation of the overall layout -- the form of spatial perception.
In order to achieve spiritual resonance, the restoration of the scent of the literati, which can not be seen in Suzhou's Lion Forest, needs to be placed in a garden environment similar to the mother and replicating the feelings of the Lion Forest in Suzhou with similar scenes. It is not difficult to find out that the intentional imitation of the lion's forest is obvious in the comparison of the plane map of the garden of the mother - copy and the stage of the lion's forest in the Qing Dynasty.
The layout of the garden may be regarded as the superposition of the landscape space and the traditional Chinese courtyard space, and the layout is more flexible, but there is always a kind of traditional space in China to control the whole garden. In the specific pattern, the garden is not mainly understood by the rockery landscape, the mountain and the stone are surrounded by the central important building, which extends westward and into the pool, and the south is close to the middle of the wall, forming a mobile space. The western part of the garden is mainly a more open "C" shaped water system. The water surface is divided into two spaces between the north and south of the central Peninsula, and the building is scattered in the garden, but it is concentrated in the northern part of the garden.
The lion forest of the garden continues the characteristics of the basic spatial pattern of the mountain ring and the landscape. In the base environment of the water form and the peninsula, the buildings in the courtyard space have been slightly adjusted, but their counterpart relations have not changed greatly. The appearance of the lion forest and the garden of the garden lies in the specific imitation of the whole layout of the lion's forest and the structure of the landscape structure, which is the superposition of the natural space and the courtyard space. The same overall pattern makes the ornamental more easily associating with the spatial feeling of the mother's mother, which is the basic requirement and purpose of writing imitation, and directly counter to it. Reflecting the feelings and aspirations of the emperor's "moving heaven to the earth".
Three. Imitation of building specifications - similar to building volume.
There are 9 buildings in the park, two kiosks on the rockery, three in the northwest part of the park, and the other buildings are relatively independent. There are 15 buildings in the Lin Yuan of the Lion Garden. There are only 7 of the Jing Ting, and the number is much higher than that of the garden. However, in the layout of the main buildings, there is no archetype in the garden, except in the west of the garden. The other buildings can correspond to the buildings of the garden, as shown in the table, regardless of the position, the volume and the higher level. According to the data in the table, the layout of the Lion Garden in the garden is in the architectural layout. The building volume and the architectural elements are almost modeled on the construction of the garden. Only the two places of Xiaoxiang and Heng Bi Xuan should be adjusted or built up differently from their female counterparts. One of the main features of the private gardens in the south is the small size and exquisite beauty. The garden Lion Forest abandoned the grand and magnificent palace of the Royal Palace, and used small volume to restore the garden atmosphere in the south of the Yangtze River, avoiding the sense of congestion in the small space, and at the same time, it can fully display the exquisite architecture in the garden. And fun.
It is worth noting that, in the previous studies, it has been clearly mentioned that the mountain walls of the Qing pavilion have retained the view of the South and the practice of the fire mountain wall used by the lion forest ancient garden, and the flavor of the buildings in the south of the Yangtze River is also emphasized in the architectural form. From this we can see that the Lion Garden of Wen Yuan has a lot of thoughts on the imitation and innovation of architecture. What is worth mentioning in the building is the courtyard wall. The garden is located in the city of Suzhou. In order to live in the streets and isolation of the surrounding dwellings, the courtyard wall of 4-5 meters is set up. The secondary height is enough to divide the space inside and outside the hospital. For this reason, the Taoyuan artistic conception of "the City mountain forest" is also reflected. Although the Lion Grove in Changchun garden and Wen Yuan Garden are in the natural environment, they also inherited this feature. In particular, the lion forest of the garden is in the small ring of the Imperial Palace, which does not exist in the surrounding area, and it is on the garden island because of the location of the garden. Although it is separated from the surrounding environment, it also has a certain independence. So it seems that the walls around the garden are not essential, but if there is no wall, the unique "urban forest" of the Suzhou lion forest will not exist. Therefore, in the garden of the garden of the lion forest, the basic building technique will be retained with the scope of the enclosure. The courseware will pay attention to the details at the time of imitation. Even with the wall, it is much shorter than the Suzhou lion forest, and the wall is undulating along the terrain, paying attention to the connection and penetration of the scenery outside the garden. . It can be seen that the imitation of the architectural elements of the garden wall plays an important role in restoring the artistic conception of the garden.
Four. Imitation of gardening elements: pursuit of details.
Lin Sulai, the lion of the Suzhou, is famous for the superimposed art of the rockery, and the Middle East of the lion forest of the garden is also made mainly by the rockery, creating the "I am in the city". During the Qianlong years, many ways of using private gardens were introduced into the gardening activities. In the course of the construction of the Royal Garden, the excellent gardeners from the south of the Yangtze River were employed to come to the north to take part in the garden building activities of the Royal Garden, of which there was no lack of high hands, and Zhang Ran was an outstanding representative. Lion forest is a famous park in the south of the Yangtze River, and the lion forest of the garden is built and attached great importance to it, and the high hands of Wu Zhong, which is hired by the royal family in the activities of the mountain, will also be involved, so the rockery in the garden embodies the strong characteristics of the north and the exquisite structure and route arrangement in the false mountain of the Lion Forest in Suzhou, so that the person is in the north. Fang can also appreciate the twists and turns of the lion forest rockery in Wuzhong and the fun of walking up and down.
The garden also has a selective reference in plants. It is recorded in history that there are five ancient pine trees in the area of the lion's forest in Suzhou. Therefore, they are also called "five pine gardens", and Ni Zan's "the lion forest map" and the "South patrol grand plan", which record the travel notes of the Qianlong South Tour, also have the description of the five ancient pine. According to the textual research, there are five ancient pine trees in the garden on top of two East and West rockery in the pool, and two on the east side of the imperial library. However, with the history of migration, the ancient pine is long gone. In order to embody the picture, the garden lion forest planted pine trees on the earth mountain outside the east side of the garden, and the pine trees outside the garden wall, forming the landscape of the pine forest in the garden and outside the landscape, weakening the sense of partition of the wall. It seems that in the selection of plants, the construction of the Lion Forest in the garden also reflects the pursuit of artistic conception in the way of writing imitation.
The imitation of the Lion Forest in Suzhou is an imitation of the garden of the lion's forest. Through the above summary, it can be seen that in the process of the imitation of the lion's forest in the garden, it is more particular about the pursuit of the artistic conception of the garden relative to the resemblance of the form.
In the "imitation" aspect, it is the most basic requirement of garden imitation when copying the same feeling in different places through the similarity of the environment. The lion forest of the garden is more strict in inheriting the spatial layout of the Lion Forest in Suzhou, the volume of the building, and the elements of the garden.
The Lion Grove in Wen Yuan not only has "imitation", but also "Chuang". Limited to the length of the brief summary. The lion forest of the garden has made full use of its excellent geographical conditions and natural environment. It has made bold innovations in the environment, the construction of the rockery, the abundance of the water system and the building, which makes the lion forest of the garden more harmonious with the surrounding environment. The landscape level is more abundant, breaking through the restrictions on the space and terrain of the Lion Forest in Suzhou. In the artistic conception, it is more close to the original meaning of the garden, and also better expresses the artistic conception of the mountain forest.
(excerpts from Li Yang's comparative study of the Lion Garden and the Lion Forest in Suzhou)